I am going to sum up two posts appeared at TECNOLIBERAL (1 y 2). Written by a Spanish Army Commander, it covers all the types of modern enemmies to democracy in the so-called "Wars of Fourth Generation".
The cause for this wars? Paradoxically, it's the enormous military power of the West, what has caused them, as "its possible rivals understood that the warlike confrontation following the traditional model was, for them, noviable". So, they are using the "Prolonged war" and "Just war" schemes, following Mao Tse Tung, the first who spoke about these two concepts.
This form to conceive and to lead the war gathers many contributions of the strategic concept of Mao Tse-tung, in individual those of "Prolonged War" and "Just war". By means of first the time is used to wear away a too powerful enemy and through the second it is to take to the enemy Armed Forces and their population to the conviction of which they are fighting in "an unjust" war.
These contributions have marked a fundamental strategic turn, since, without leaving the control of the own population,it has tried to influence remarkably in the potentially enemy, through social mass media, pacifist organizations, international organisms, compatible countries, etc.
So who is an asymmetric ennemy?
Consequently, "Asymetric Ennemy" (EASI) is the one who uses methods, technologies, values, organizations and perspective of time significantly different from those from our Armed Forces with the intention to maximize its advantages, to operate our weaknesses, to obtain the initiative or to gain the greater freedom of action". Also, he orients to us on the methods that they use or they can use as they are, among others: "the war of guerrillas, the subversion, the terrorism, the mobilization of the civil masses, the intimidation and the manipulation of the information".
He divides these ennemies into 4 categories:
ENEMY TYPE EASI 1: Maximum difficulty in the identification of its members, territories and seats. Normally is characterised by the "religious fundamentalism".
with general character, we could say that their bases are located in States in crisis, even though can receive aid or secret endorsement of governments who are in tune with their aims. The objectives to reach are not confined to the local area, but that has a limitless reach, although we can identify like basic elements: the anti-Western sentiment, the elimination of the state of Israel, the establishment of Islamic States and the Islamic expansion.
It presents/displays to the West like the source of all the seas of the Islamic world. The colonization of the practical totality of the Muslim countries by one or another western power is considered like an attempt on the part of these to neutralize or to destroy its culture and its system of life; for that reason, they try to erase all vestige of the colonial time.
The rejection to the model of western government, on the other hand failed in most of the Muslim world, takes to this type of threat to advocate a model of State in which the Sharía is the referring one forced.
[...They are also trying] to return to the past, to remake history, to recover the lost splendor "to even reconquer" territories.
[...] Several factors exist that distinguish this enemy, as they are: diffuse objectives, which implies the great difficulty in establishing a route of negotiation or agreement with; the organizational capacity, product of the present systems of communication; implacable cruelty; and use of any type of armament to that it can have access; in order to obtain these objectives, enemy type EASI 1 is worth, fundamentally, of the "Attacks" and the "Control of resources".
ENEMY TYPE EASI 2: with defined territory, but without seat and certain difficulty to identify to its members.
The conclusion of the "Cold War" after the fall of the Wall of Berlin and the disappearance of the Soviet block, left to orphans of financing and logistical support to a series of guerrilla detachments of Marxist character that operated in the scope of the Third World; the necessity to look for new sources of economic resources for the continuation of its activities, took to many of these organizations to introduce in the field of activities such as the ráficot of drugs, arms or people, arriving many from them, with time, to do of these its main reason of existence.
Even though the daily experience has been filing its primitive ideals, or of sincere form or like mere justificatory tactics before themselves and the public opinion to which they try to redeem, the certain thing is that, in most of the cases, they have conserved a strong ideological component of Marxist character based on the Earth distribution or policies of social justice. In this situation is most of the nations that maintain their activity guerrilla in South America, Distant East and Africa.
Even though in the case of the first group a political "purpose exists", reminiscencia of its original ideals, the practice indicates to us that the objectives common to reach about both group go fundamentally directed to the "eagerness of profit" and to the "control of the territory" in which they develop his activity. [...] Add to that the weakening of the Public Administration.
The modalities of performance of this EASI are: the selective operations of guerrilla that we can denominate "classic" and attacks. By means of first the control makes sure the territory where their operational bases as well as plantations and networks of distribution are located. The seconds go directed to objectives with great repercussion in social mass media, such as officials government or civil personnel in urban nuclei, in order to mine the public moral, to diminish the legitimacy of the institutions and to obtain a greater control of the territory.
In general, the set of the countries have been constituted, through centuries, by means of a slow fusion of ethnic groups, cultures and languages that have given rise a new one, or to the predominance of one of them, accepted generally by the rest. However, this union has sometimes not been the result of a slow and pacific evolution, but the product of an imposition, as it could be the birth of "artificial" nations, consequence of World War I, like the Balkan nations, or resultant of a precipitated decolonization or taking care of the interests of the colonizadora power, as they can be a great part of the African nations.
[...] The European continent with nations formed for several centuries, has been giving rise to groups of this tendency characterized by the search of a "racial purity", advocating the fragmentation of the state in which they are immersed, to constitute they themselves in state within territories that they denominate "historical".
[...] Of successive and even simultaneous form, if the suitable conditions occur, the "reinforcement of its identity" through the "ethnic cleaning" will look for, in a certain territory assumed like own by the group by means of a particular historical and cultural vision. This ethnic cleaning will be made because of a series of performances like: to prevent the arrival of emigrants or the population expelled in the past; terrorist actions on opposite institutions and people to the phenomenon of the identitario extremism; social, political, religious, cultural pressure, etc., of legal elements on the nonin favor ones of the separation of the "pressed town" of "the opresor" State.
Institutions and people identified with "the opresor" State and that causes a defendant psychological impact in this one and "the enemy" population, will be the looked for objectives more like victims.
ENEMY TYPE EASI 4: with territory and seat, as well as with population easily identifiable.
The quarter and last group in which we have divided to the set of the possible asymmetric enemies are integrated by certain states, located in a position of international marginalization and possession of "arms of massive destruction" (ADM) and of its vectors of launching. We identified to this type of asymmetric enemy with a State because only they have the suitable elements to develop and to protect ADM.
the strategy of this type of enemy does not consist, normally, in the use of these arms, but in the threat of its use like blackmail means towards the international community or other States leaders, to obtain political or economic advantages. This threat with States in which dictatorial regimes reign,with difficulties is identified to integrate itself in the international community, sometimes reminiscencias of the old Soviet block.
[...] A particular, but extremely dangerous case by the indefinición of their territory and seat, as well as by the difficulty to identify to their members in this type of enemy, constitute the national organizations or international who can take control of an indetermine number of ADM, even though they are of small power. This case supposes, perhaps, greater the risk which the international community is put under at the moment, inasmuch as they could fall into the hands of groups of fanatics incapable to calibrate the serious consequences that its use would cause.
The asymmetric enemy whom the western world faces at the present time is, frequently, a diffuse and intangible enemy; cultural, technical and religiously different; paralyzed until the end to sacrifice, without doubting it, its life by the "insensible cause" and to the damage that can cause their actions, between those to which they even say to defend; indifferent to the sufferings that can suffer and the time that there is to use in obtaining his aims.
[...] We will finalize this work having remembered that if Mao Tse-tung affirmed that to lace guerrillas who were to move between the population "like fish in the water", this assertion is no lost use; quite to the contrary, the massive and rural guerrilla has taken step, or she has been extended, to do small and urban, ideological and a fanatical one in many cases, that she even moves between the population with greater facility than the praised one by the Chinese leader.
I have only reproduced some of the ideas on those posts, but I recommend to read them all. It's a very important document to miss.
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